MRSA Medical MRSA Infection CAMRSA

MRSA Infections - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention, Cure MRSA, New Silver Solution, Staphylococcus aureus, Staph infections, Information

Biofilm Formations and MRSA

Staphylococcus aureus - Biofilms...

Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis in Biofilm Formations...

Prior to 1984, enterococci were members of the genus Streptococcus: thus Enterococcus faecalis was known as Streptococcus faecalis.

A characteristic of many pathogenic strains of Staphylococcus epidermidis is the production of a slime resulting in biofilm formation. The slime is predominantly a secreted teichoic acid, normally found in the cell wall of the staphylococci. This ability to form a biofilm on the surface of a prosthetic device is probably a significant determinant of virulence for these bacterium.

MRSA resistant bacterium are often found in biofilm formations - Biofilms are 'protective coatings' which attract various strains of the staph bacterium to form a matrix-type of formation that protect the inner core and prevent antibiotic influence.

The formation of bacterial biofilms on implant material is widely accepted as the leading cause of the local progressive tissue destruction resulting in osteolysis and implant loosening.

It is generally assumed that the infection persists because bacterium organised as biofilms escape the host defence mechanisms.

In-vitro work has demonstrated that Staphylococcus aureus organisms with a disrupted cell wall (also known as cell wall deficient organisms) have a significantly greater ability to adhere to plastic and metal surfaces. Adherence is fundamental to the formation of biofilm.

A disruption in the cell wall is easily achieved with growth of the organisms in a sodium chloride enriched media. The sodium chloride concentration needed is in a similar range to that found in the human body.

Organisms in a biofilm can result in chronic infections. What is therefore shown in-vitro is that certain biological systems can aid Staphylococcus aureus in establishing chronic and resistant infections through facilitating biofilm formation.

Biofilms are a population of micro-organisms that adhere to living tissue or to inanimate object surfaces (such as implants and catheters) within the body. Biofilms are allowed to develop when single-celled, free floating micro-organisms, become attached to each other. Usually to an inanimate surface. The micro-organisms excretion of adhesive substances will attract additional micro-organisms until a dense matrix has formulated. The biofilm matrix grows through the addition of micro-organisms and cell division of micro-organisms, that are already a part of this matrix.

Within a biofilm matrix, these micro-organisms perform differently from free-floating micro-organisms. The bacterium contained within the matrix interact and behave as a unit, rather than individual cells. Signalling of the chemicals, result in recruitment of specific types of bacterium, which protect the biofilm colonies. The biofilm matrix is physically dense, with the outer layers of micro-organisms protecting the inner colony. This protective behaviour means that biofilm bacterium are up to one thousand times more resistant to antimicrobial agents like antibiotics, than their free-floating brethren.

Biofilm development on inanimate surfaces...

Just about any sort of inserted or implanted devices may be contaminated with a biofilm matrix. Pacemakers, artificial heart valves, catheters, replacement hip joints, bone cement and many other surgical implants. All are typical examples of surgical devices which are commonly contaminated with biofilms. Bacterial contamination begins with migration of normal skin micro-organisms into the body. They adhere to the device and begin to form a biofilm matrix.

Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, and Staphylococcus epidermidis, are all examples of bacterium that are frequently associated with the development of biofilms that form on indwelling, or inserted surgical devices. These biofilm isolates can range from gram-positive, gram-negative, or mixed species. The longer a contaminated device remains in the body, the greater the chance that the biofilm will attract multiple species. Multiple biofilm formations can form, all of which contribute to antimicrobial resistance.

One of the foremost characteristics of The New Silver Solution, lies in its ability to break down biofilm formation.

The New Silver Solution is a patented solution that has undergone intense and rigorous testing by the most respected laboratories and research establishments currently available. Please note that this is a new technology and not in any way comparable with any other colloidal silver that may offer benefits that are unproven or tested in-house.

Please read 'Silver Solution Information' for a full description of all tests conducted and please also view the unique patent for more information. You may click on the bottle above to view the order page. Please mail me, if you require any further information, or advice. - Michael A Fowler, M.B.A. -