MRSA Medical MRSA Infection CAMRSA

MRSA Infections - Symptoms, Treatment, Prevention, Cure MRSA, New Silver Solution, Staphylococcus aureus, Staph infections, Information

"SUPERBUGS"

 
 
A new mother, Katy Hayes awoke to find that her limbs had been amputated after being infected with a "flesh-eating" MRSA type of bacteria during the birth of her third child....

But this was not MRSA - Staphyloccocus aureus - It was Streptococcus - The other bacterium that we have living on our skin as part of our 'comensual flora.'


The misuse and overuse of antibiotics, especially in meat products (Seventy percent of all antibiotics are used to enhance growth in animals) was believed to be the causitive factor of the infection to develop resistance to medical antibiotics. There are now about 15,000 cases of Invasive Group A Streptococcus in the USA annually, with about 2,000 of these infections being fatal. Streptococcus infections are now becoming as much a concern as MRSA (Staphylococcus aureus) infections, due to the increasing resistance factor to medical antibiotics. Streptococcus infections normally cause strep throat and impetigo, but if the infection is allowed to go unchecked, can cause necrotizing fasciitis - a toxin laying bacterium that rapidly and repeatedly kills bloodcells, to spread throughout the body. This type of infection is commonly referred to as: "The flesh-eating bug."

According to the U.S. Center of Disease Control (CDC) approximately 1.7 million American people contracted infections during hospital stays in 2007 and 100,000 deaths resulted from these infections.

Overall, about 70 percent of antibiotics used in the United States are for agricultural purposes. These animals are often given low dose antibiotics for disease prevention and growth promotion. Those antibiotics are then transferred to the general public through meat ingestion and even appear in manure used for fertilizers. This is perpetuating antibiotic resistance in humans and it is no longer a case where only those with compromized immune systems were at risk - now the healthy are falling prey to these infections.


Michael's Comments:

My heart goes out to Katy and Al Hayes. This is a tragic story of what happens when we ignore public health issues. When we can't put two plus two together to make four. When profits to an industry are felt more important that human health and when officials are misguided by their peers.

It was with great interest that I noted Katy and Al were from Houston, Texas. A flood of memories came back to me about the state of texas and the numerous calls I have made to that particular state in response to MRSA infections. The lady who was told to; 'go home, make herself comfortable and expect the inevitable' because none of the antibiotics worked on her infection. The prison guard who called me because he was "terrified" that one of the inmates had MRSA and he had to deliver his food to his cell. Out of 617 cases we have worked on so far, about 20% of these cases have come out of Texas.

Now you don't need a degree in popographics or demographics to work out that there must be some correlation between the number of people in Texas who contract MRSA and Streptococcus infections and the resistance factors involved. Is this 'just coincidence' or is there a definite link between antibiotics given to cattle and the high resistance factors found in Texas? Certainly, the number of cases are a growing concern and that could be linked to a 'higher than normal' resistance factor towards conventional antibiotics.

Thankfully, we have had no problems in eradicating the MRSA and associated pathogens in any of the Texas cases to date. Necrotizing fasciitis however, gives a person little time for treatment. Over 50% of all necrotizing fasciitis cases end in death, while the rest mostly involve loss of limbs or internal organs.

This is where education is paramount and immune system health is a priority. At MRSA medical, we promote 'prevention' rather than cure. Cutting down on saturated fats, eating more fresh and raw vegatables, getting at least 20 mins of sunshine every day and taking just 4 tsp of New Silver Solution, two in the am and two in the pm, is going to drastically reduce the chances of contracting viral and bacterial infections. "Lying in wait" for a pathogen to appear is a far better method than chasing after one.

MRSA "Superbugs"

Each year, at least 100,000 people who go into hospital gets an infection there. MRSA is one example.

What is MRSA?

Staphylococcus is a family of common bacteria.

Many people naturally carry it in their throats, or nasal passages and it can cause a severe infection in a healthy patient.

MRSA stands for Methicillin-Resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, but is shorthand for any strain of Staphylococcus bacteria which is resistant to one or more conventional antibiotics and those alternatives are fast running out.

Experts have so far uncovered 17 strains of MRSA, with differing degrees of immunity to the effects of various antibiotics.

Two particular strains, clones 15 and 16, are thought to be more transmissible than the others, and account for 96% of MRSA bloodstream infections in the UK and USA.

At present, these strains are thought to be rare in other countries, but are spreading.

Antibiotics are not completely powerless against MRSA, but patients may require a much higher dose over a much longer period, or the use of an alternative antibiotic to which the bug has less resistance. This in turn can lead to destruction of the immune system and leave the patient open to all other kinds of infections.


What are the symptoms?


MRSA infections can cause a broad range of symptoms depending on the part of the body that is infected. These may include surgical wounds, burns, catheter sites, eye, skin and blood.

Infection often results in redness, swelling and tenderness at the site of infection. Sometimes, people may carry MRSA without having any symptoms.


Why does MRSA exist?


It's all about survival of the fittest - the basic principle of evolution, and bacteria have been around a lot longer than us, so they're pretty good at it.

There are countless different strains of a single type of bacteria, and each has subtle natural genetic mutations which make it different from the other. In addition, bacterial genes are constantly mutating.

Some strains' genetic makeup will give them a slight advantage when it comes to fighting off antibiotic attack. So when weaker strains encounter antibiotics, they die, while these naturally resistant strains may prove harder to kill. This means that next time you encounter a Staph infection, it is more likely to be one which has survived an antibiotic encounter, i.e. a resistant one.

The advice from doctors who give you antibiotics is always to finish the entire course - advice which many of us ignore. When you don't finish the course, there's a chance that you'll kill most of the bugs, but not all of them - and the ones that survive are of course likely to be those that are most resistant to antibiotics.

Over time, the bulk of the Staph strains will carry resistance genes, and further mutations may only add to their survival ability. Strains that manage to carry two or three resistance genes will have extraordinary powers of resistance to antibiotics.

The reason that hospitals seem to be hotbeds for resistant MRSA is because so many different strains are being thrown together with so many doses of antibiotics, vastly accelerating this natural selection process and the fact that peoples immune systems are generally vunerable due to other illness.


Why is it so dangerous?


It is a fact of life in the UK NHS and in American Hospitals, that patients are at higher than normal risk of picking up a Staph infection on the wards.

This is for two reasons - firstly, that the population in hospitals tends to be older, sicker and weaker than the general population, making them more vulnerable to the infection.

Secondly, conditions in hospitals, which involve a great many people living cheek by jowl, examined by doctors and nurses who have just touched other patients, are the perfect environment for the transmission of all manner of infections.

Staph infections can be dangerous in weakened patients, particularly if they can't be cleared up quickly with antibiotic treatments. MRSA infections can prove tough to treat because they are resistant to treatment by most antibiotics, making them more dangerous than a simple case of Staph.


What is likely to happen in the future?


Doctors are very worried about what the future holds for MRSA.

The number of reports of MRSA infections rises year by year - and the latest evidence suggests that deaths due to MRSA are increasing at a similar rate.


What about new superbugs?


Already, the spectre of a bug resistant to all antibiotics is approaching.

VRSA, or vancomycin resistant Staphylococcus Aureus, has acquired resistance to a drug considered the "last line of defence" when all other antibiotics have failed.

The UK has already seen several cases of GISA, or glycopeptide intermediate Staphylococcus aureus, a kind of "halfway house" between MRSA and VRSA, which has developed a resistance to antibiotics of the vancomycin family.

Experts are also concerned a new killer 'superbug' is emerging in the UK , called Panton-Valentine leukocidin (PVL) MRSA. Not all types of Staph that make the PVL toxin are dangerous or so difficult to treat, but PVL MRSA appears to be particularly virulent.

Cases of another bug, Clostridium difficile, are also cropping up in UK hospitals. It is not a "superbug", and can be treated relatively easily. However, the bug forms spores which means it can survive for long periods in the environment, such as on floors and around toilets, and spread in the air. Clostridium difficile can cause illness when certain antibiotics disturb the balance of 'normal' bacteria in the gut.

Rigorous cleaning with warm water and detergent is the most effective means of removing spores from the contaminated environment and the hands of staff, say experts.

Worryingly, infections are cropping up in healthy people in the community, rather than among sick people in hospital.

Although new antibiotics are being developed all the time, pessimistic experts believe it is only a matter of time at current rates until virtually every weapon in the pharmaceutical arsenal is nullified. Nihilists suggest that there could come a point at which bacteria retake the upper hand, and doctors, as in previous centuries, have no answer to some bacterial infections.

It should be noted, they say, that humans have only had the upper hand over bacteria for a handful of decades - we have no right to expect that situation to last forever.


What can we do about it now?


The government is already trying to at least slow down the apparently relentless march of the bacteria. One of the main reasons behind their swift evolution into "superbugs" is the overuse of antibiotics, both in human and veterinary medicine.

Until recently, patients visiting their doctor with a viral infection might demand, and be given an antibiotic prescription - despite the fact that antibiotics have no effect on this.
All those patients were doing was strengthening the communities of bacteria in their bodies. Doctors have now been told to cut antibiotic prescribing.

Hygiene is another tried and tested way of at least protecting the most vulnerable patients from the most dangerous strains. Hand washing between patients should be a must for doctors and nurses, or they are simply doing more harm than good in their trips around the wards.

Ministers are trying to improve overall standards of hygiene, perhaps by reintroducing the concept of the ward matron, with responsibility for cleanliness. New patient bedside phones are being introduced that include speed dial buttons to alert staff to the need to deal with a hygiene problem.

Whether a dirty ward rather than a dirty hand is a reservoir for Staphylococcus is a matter of debate. But MRSA patients are also increasingly being treated in isolation where possible.

In the long run, many experts suggest it may take a breakthrough akin to the discovery of penicillin before humans can regain a temporary upper hand over the bugs again.

The New Silver Solution is akin to that discovery. Now on trial in many Hospitals throughout the United States, a simple nasal spray and just two teaspoons a day taken internally, has been shown to boost the immune system, making it completely effective in the eradication of MRSA and many other known pathogens. It is just a matter of time before they recognise that The New Silver Solution is the 'Magic Silver Bullet' they have been seeking.

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